Paris, France’s capital, is a major European city and a global centre for art, fashion, gastronomy and culture. Its 19th-century cityscape is crisscrossed by wide boulevards and the River Seine. Beyond such landmarks as the Eiffel Tower and the 12th-century, Gothic Notre-Dame cathedral, the city is known for its cafe culture and designer boutiques along the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré.

Population: 2020 2.2 million.

Public transport: Paris is cut off from its suburbs and is disproportionately peopled by the carless (‘The President’s dilemmas’, The Economist 04th July 2020).