Molecular analysis | Technique which can be used to prevent fraud: the total anthocyanin content of wine can be altered by winemaking, but the chemical nature of the anthocyanins and their relative ratios cannot be changed as each is genetically determined (Ian D’Agata, 2014, p11). See also nuclear magnetic radioisotope.

Bibliography

Dr Ian D’Agata, Native Wine Grapes of Italy (University of California Press, 2014).

Oxford Companion to Wine 4th edition ed. Jancis Robinson MW and Julia Harding MW (Oxford University Press, 2015).