Chianti Classico vintages: See Chianti Classico DOCG.

2019Growing season2019 is looking set to be a classic vintage year. Mild, relatively dry winter into early spring. Normal bud break. Spring rain created significant supplies of water, adequate to face a moderately hot summer with little rainfall. Cool, damp weather in May and early June created a slight delay in the vines’ vegetative cycle compared to previous years, at a pace similar to the great 1980s vintages. The even, high summer temperatures without peaks or heavy rain, were followed by good weather in September with considerable night-day temperature variation, resulting in grapes with perfectly ripe phenolics. The healthy, ripe Sangiovese grapes were picked from around 20th September to mid-October in similar quantities to 2018,’ (Source: Consorzio).

2019Vineyard area

2019Production Around 300,000hl (Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). 315 producers using the Chianti Classico label: normale, Riserva and Gran Selezione (Source: Consorzio). 136 were using the Gran Selezione denomination.

2019Wine quality Paolo de Marchi told me (Anteprima 2019) 2019 ‘was like 2016, you had to wait for the tannins to ripen.’  ‘Alcohol levels slightly lower than average,’ (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico).

2018Growing season Described as showing ‘an uneven and changeable weather pattern throughout the vineyards’ vegetative cycle…a lack of sustained dry, sunny weather,’ (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). ‘Cold winter. With snow. Occasionally subzero temperatures. A very changeable spring,’ (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). Early bud break due to above average temperatures for March and April. May was a fairly rainy month. From spring 10th June onwards it got warmer. Into summer the weather was a mix of intensely sunny days followed by rain, sometimes heavy. This made disease control a challenge, and also contributed to vine growth continuing much later than usual. From 10th June onwards, temperatures started rising again. Summer temperatures were within the norm. Good summer with little rain. Veraison began in late July and continued quite slowly in August. But ‘the vines continued to produce vegetation until late August,’ (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). September brought warm to hot days, with cool nights. Harvest ran from around 20 September to the third week in October. This period brought ‘hot, sunny days, a good night-day temperature variation [which] enabled the grapes to ripen fully,’ (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico).

2018Vineyard area 7,078 hectares (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico).

2018: Production Yields 27% down compared to average annual production (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). Valoritalia data: 280,526hl (33,595,733 bottles). 745 producers overall (Valoritalia). 692 grape growers (Valoritalia). 442 wine producers (Valoritalia). 341 bottlers (Valoritalia). 310 producers using the Chianti Classico label: normale, Riserva and Gran Selezione (Source: Consorzio). 95 producers were using the Gran Selezione denomination (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico).

2018Wine quality While 2018 was better than 2017, it was only just above average in quality, with vines still stressed from the lack of water in 2017. At Anteprima 2019 Paolo de Marchi told me ‘2018 was a cooler vintage. It produced compact wines with low pH [more acid strength, more stable], mature tannins and good aromas’. Those with fruit healthy enough to be picked late got the best results in 2018. ‘A very good year for those who managed to pick quite late. Good acidity, mature [ripe] tannins. Ideal chemical and organoleptic features for medium-long aging,’ (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). Yields were higher than 2017, but still below recent averages. This was linked to the stressful 2017 season with its spring frosts and drought (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico).

2017Growing season Stressful for both vines and winemakers. One of the driest years in recent decades. The first months of the year were variable with some rains only at the end of February and March. The dry winter and warm spring provoked early budburst. April frosts then caused 35% crop losses.  From May onwards there was very little rainfall. Chianti areas registered only few storms in late spring. Temperatures were also always above the seasonal average and, in some periods, especially in July and August, reached high heat spikes. Light rain in early September helped alleviate vine stress and allowed the completion of the grape ripening process. The long period of sunny and dry weather reduced berry size, leaving concentrated wines with just about enough fruit-tannins balance in the best wines. Yields down 27% compared to the average (Source: Consorzio). Some estates in Radda in Chianti reported up to 50% crop losses.

2017Vineyard area | 6,972 hectares (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico).

2017Production 208,926hl (Valoritalia, Federdoc). The consorzio says its official figure is 206,213hl. 36,547,333 million bottles (Valoritalia). The lowest level of production of the last 40 years. ‘27.5m bottles (Chianti Classico 64%, Riserva 32%, gran selezione 4%),’ (Susan Hulme MW, Decanter May 2018, p.91)–however the Consorzio pointed out 270 thousand hl is the average production for Chianti Classico between 2008-2018.

2017Wine quality Wines with deep colour. Tannins are generally mature and smooth in the mouth. Paolo de Marchi told me (Anteprima 2019) his 2017 wines ‘crocante’ or crunchy. Others described 2017 as a ‘leopard’, meaning very different results according to site (altiude, aspect) and soil type (moisture retentivity).

2016Growing season Very dry and hot July, and a hot August too. Vine stress was alleviated somewhat due to some rain in late August and early September. | 2016 ‘Low July rainfall, summer not excessively hot. Potentially excellent; very distinctive Sangiovese,’ (Susan Hulme MW, Decanter May 2018, p.91). ‘2016 was a much more balanced growing season compared to 2015, with rain and cooler spells between hot and sunny periods. 2016 was also defined by a wonderful Indian summer with cooler nights and warm days. The best 2016 Chianti Classicos shine thanks to vibrant acidity which gives the wines a grippy backbone, not dissimilar to some the lively nature reminiscent of some of the great wines made in the early 1990s,’ (Monty Waldin). Paolo de Marchi told me (Anteprima 2019) 2016 ‘was perfect, cool and you had to wait for the tannins to ripen. The wines had low pH [more acid strength, more stable]’.

2016Vineyard area | 6,906 hectares (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico).

2016Production 286,388hl (Valoritalia, Federdoc). 281,000hl (Consorzio). 37,768,133 bottles (Valoritalia). 37.5 million bottles,’ (Susan Hulme MW, Decanter May 2018, p.91). 

2016Growing season ‘The 2016 vintage profile was standard, without any health problems in vineyards. The only noteworthy event was the low rainfalls registered at the end of July during veraison, but the water stress was overcome by rainfalls at the end of August and beginning of September. The balance was also supported by the heat regularity without extreme spikes in the last month, and this helped grapes ripening with no overripe or cooked fruit. The excellent summer saw low rainfalls and high temperatures in July and August, but above all [day-night] temperature shifts allowed [the potential for wines with pronounced aroma and acidity. Wines with high levels of extract, anthocyanins, polyphenols and  concentration (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico).

2015 | Growing season ‘The 2015 growing season was marked by regular vine development allied to a long, dry, hot summer, especially July and into August, and then between the end of August and into early September. Winter was mitigated with some cold days with temperatures below zero. Springtime was very mild with medium-high temperatures that allowed regular vine growth. [All the phenological phases–budding, flowering, ripening and veraison–were perfect.]  Summer months were generally excellent with low rainfalls and high temperatures in July and August, balanced by good night temperature shifts,’ (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). 2015 ‘Near-perfect: cold winter, mild spring, hot summer, cold overnight temperatures. The best wines will easily last 10 years,’ (Susan Hulme MW, Decanter May 2018, p.91).

2015Production 29.4 million hl (Source: Federdoc as reported by I Numeri del Vino). | 2015: 40 million bottles,’ (Susan Hulme MW, Decanter May 2018, p.91). Overall production: 300,000 hl (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico).

2015: Wine quality ‘Producers are upbeat [about 2015]. Sweltering July but central Tuscany had well distributed rainfall through the rest of the growing season, and cooler temperatures in the run up to harvest which slowed ripening. The wines should be deeply coloured and full-bodied, similar in some ways to the very powerful 2006 wines,’ says Richard Baudains (2016, p.59). In my report for the 2017 Decanter World Wine Awards (for which I was Tuscany Chair) I wrote ‘2015 in Chianti Classico looks to be a classic, with bright, beautifully structured wines with moreish fruit and agreeably friendly tannins.’ 2015 is very good, a lot richer and rounder compared to 2016. Those who worked well in the vineyard avoided grape sun-burn and shriveling. High extract values, anthocyanins, polyphenols. Some great wines, which show good levels of colour and ripeness. Maurizio Castelli told me (11 Jan 2021) that ‘Chianti Classico’s 2015 red wines have largely been under-rated but only because they are so easy to enjoy.’

2014Growing season A wet year overall marked by marked temperature variations cooler than usual temperatures, lower than usual levels of sunlight, and abundant rainfall. Short but heavy showers alternating with windy days (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). Disease pressure was high, and full ripening was a struggle. Careful, constant thinning needed. Low altitude sites suffered most. Very late veraision, into late August. Warm days and cool nights in September to mid-October was some consolation. | 2014 ‘Cool, rainy early summer, saved by a fine September [and early October]. Hard work in the vineyard repaid dividends. For early drinking,’ (Susan Hulme MW, Decanter May 2018, p.91).

2014: Vineyard area | 6,476.66 hectares (Source: Enoproject, Franco Bernabei).

2014: Production ‘Above average (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). 29.3 million hl (Source: Federdoc as reported by I Numeri del Vino). 29.3 million hl (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). 39 million bottles,’ (Susan Hulme MW, Decanter May 2018, p.91) In Feb 2013 when the Gran Selezione category was launched 23 producers used it (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico).

2014: Wine quality 2014 brought ‘light, pale annata wines. Few Riservas,’ says Richard Baudains (2016, p.59). ‘Very intense colour thanks to the extractable anthocyans,’ (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico).

2013: In a nutshell: ‘Cool, wet spring, warm late July, August; then mild; rain late September, early October’ (Nesto & Savino, 2016, p.189).

Growing season: ‘A real winter, temperatures near zero. High rainfall during the first three months of the year. Temperatures often below the seasonal average,’ (Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). Wet early spring. Late flowering,’ (Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). Flowering was later than the average by around a fortnight (early April). Wet weather in May. The vines were over 20 days behind the norm.  Fortuitously, from mid- to late July the weather turned hot. Regular summer seasonal temperatures. Hastened ripening. Perfect September: fine, with usefully cool nights. ‘Very balanced ripening of the grapes,’ (Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). This allowed staggered picking for those with cool nerves. Later than usual harvest, into early October. Wines with good levels of colour and acidity

2013 | Production 25.8 million hl (Source: Federdoc as reported by I Numeri del Vino). 258,000hl (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). 34 million bottles,’ (Susan Hulme MW, Decanter May 2018, p.91).

2013 | Wine quality ‘Good sugar and acidity levels. Above the average. Excellent polyphenol maturity levels. Alcoholic and malolactic fermentations started unexpectedly quickly, and were regular (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). ‘The cooler than usual conditions made for ‘not the most powerful wines, but they have real, vibrant, Sangiovese grip,’ says Richard Baudains (2016, p.59). 2013 was ‘a wonderful white wine vintage: generally cold (and somewhat rainy) and characterized by a very long growing season. The wines have uncanny acid lift, flavor and depth. The reds I have tasted from cask so far also seem quite good, if in a leaner, more refined style,’ (Ian D’Agata, Vinous, Sept 2014). ‘Classic: supremely harmonious and elegant,’ (Susan Hulme MW, Decanter May 2018, p.91). 

2012Growing season: ‘2012 started  normally: cold, with snow in January and February. Mild, cool, rainy spring, especially in April. Rainfall in early May (Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). The growing season was then affected by a severe drought, with summer heat records being broken across Italy. ‘The onslaught of extremely hot weather was more sudden [in 2012 than 2011], with August featuring three serious heat spikes,’ (Ian D’Agata, Vinous, Sept 2014). ‘July and August were boiling. Poor ground-water supplies slowed grape ripening [even if the fruit was healthy]. Rainfall in early September helped kick-start grape development. A general decrease of average temperatures and greater day-night temperature shifts also helped,’ (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). ‘The 2012 growing season also featured autumn rains, so while wine quality is less consistent this year, many wines actually benefited from the cooling effect brought about by the rains,’ (Ian D’Agata, Vinous, Sept 2014). ‘The positive effects of September allowed an excellent development of ripening process of the grapes that were harvested when it is normally due in the Chianti Classico area, between the end of September and beginning of October. Grapes came to the cellar in perfect health conditions thanks to high temperatures and the lack of humidity that prevented the vine diseases to arise (mildew, powdery mildew, etc.). This allows a proper and sudden development of fermentation that brought a medium-sized alcohol level (around 14 maximum). The wines of Chianti Classico 2012 are very balanced with an exceptional balance between alcohol, acidity and polyphenols that convey smooth wines made of excellent grapes and a good and not extreme alcoholic content,’ (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico).

2012Production 22.8 million hl (Source: Federdoc as reported by I Numeri del Vino). 258,000hl (Source: Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico). Overall production was down by around 15%

2012Wine quality The best growers made wines which were ripe but neither sweet and sour (heat stressed fruit) nor jammy (over-ripeness). The 2012s are ‘full-bodied and earthy, lower in fruit and aroma, but very solid, beefy, typical hot vintage wines,’ says Richard Baudains (2016, p.59). 2012 ‘Wines are not heavy but still for early drinking,’ (Susan Hulme MW, Decanter May 2018, p.91). Some producers declassified their Gran Selezione wines.

2011Growing season ‘The 2012 and 2011 vintages were generally hot. The main differences between them are that in 2011 the heat started immediately: even April and May recorded record-high temperatures,’ (Ian D’Agata, Vinous, Sept 2014). Abundant winter rains. ‘Mild and rainy spring; hot end of June, early July; very hot August; mild September,’ (Nesto & Savino, 2016, p.190). | Summer temperatures above average, low rainfall. Low vine vigour. Both fruit set and veraison ahead of the norm. High temperatures at the end of August further accelerated ripening. ‘Very hot august; vines in hilly, water-retaining clay soils did best. Wines have rich tannins but good acidity,’ (Susan Hulme MW, Decanter May 2018, p.91). | 2011 Production 28.6 million hl (Source: Federdoc as reported by I Numeri del Vino). | 2011 Wine qualityAnother hot year [very hot late August], but far better balanced wines [than 2012]. Bags of extract. Ripe tannins though and the fruit has richness and depth. The riservas and Gran Selezioni are plush, round,’ says Richard Baudains (2016, p.59). 

2010Growing season ‘Cool and rainy spring; sunny and dry end of June, early July; cool rest of season,’ (Nesto & Savino, 2016, p.190). Michael Schmelzer of Monte Bernardi reported an ‘incredible lack of sunlight that lasted from winter [which was very cold] through to mid spring, which was cool and somewhat wet. The lack of sunlight also delayed the start of the vine growth by as much as three weeks, especially in our older vineyards and poor sunlight exposure in the early season produced reduced cluster formations (bunches shorter in length and width) than in a typical year. The bunches were also missing their winged lobe (or ‘ali’) off the main bunch which is classic to Sangiovese, and the berries were smaller and fewer.’ However, summer and autumn weather was much better, with a hot July which accelerated vine growth. The fruit ripened well given the late start (especially if yields had been reduced by the lack of early season sunlight, mentioned above). Smaller than usual berries and looser bunches also reduced the potential for grey rot, allowing growers to wait. Harvest took place from mid- to late-September and into October in good conditions with warm and dry days and cool nights.

2010: ‘The 2009 and 2010 vintages are two of the greatest ever (with caveats) for Chianti Classico and central Tuscany. The two growing seasons differed markedly from each other. In general, the warmer 2009 vintage yielded wines that are more exotic, riper and higher in alcohol. That said, please note that the cooler microclimates tended to suffer in 2010, with some wines, such as those of Gaiole, marked by green and vegetal streaks,’ (Ian D’Agata, Vinous, Sept 2014).

2010Wine quality ‘Not many Riservas made in 2010, which was a little under-ripe in some places and arguably more of an annata vintage. Despite the slight edginess, it is a vintage with authentic aromas and real Sangiovese grip. A vintage one could see stylistic changes [less oak, less French varietal influence] under way in the region,’ says Richard Baudains (2016, p59). The 2010 Chianti Classico ‘is shaping up to be a great vintage, perhaps one of the greatest. It was a cold year, with an irregular flowering that lowered yields, and a very late harvest. The wines possess stunning depth, well-delineated aromatics and massive structure. If I had to draw comparisons with recent years, I would say the 2010s have the aromatics of 2004, the fruit density of 2007 and the structure of 2006′, says Antonio Galloni in ‘Tuscany 2009 and 2010: A World of Opposites’ (Vinous). In my report for the 2013 Decanter World Wine Awards (for which I was Tuscany Chair) I wrote that ‘the cooler, less hyped 2010 Chianti Classico vintage should attract those looking for perfumed reds with savoury elegance.’

2009Growing season ‘Abundant spring rain; warm early May; June rain; hot and dry July, August,’ (Nesto & Savino, 2016, p190). ‘Although initially it looked like 2009 would be known as “another hot vintage” just like 2003, the growing cycle and weather pattern were unsual and in many ways different. Proof of this are the 2009 wines which are much fresher, more aromatic and have more finesse than expected based on the 2009 weather conditions. The winter preceding 2009 was extremely wet, replenishing low water tables, which guaranteed an ongoing water supply for the vines throughout the warm and dry 2009 season. Owing to a very hot May with temperatures shooting up to 30 °C and higher, flowering and fruit set were swiftly completed so that harvest was expected to begin a good 10 days earlier than normal. But the growing cycle rate was greatly slowed down by the middle of May, when it started to rain, which continued for almost 30 consecutive days resulting in increased fungal pressure. But as our vineyards are quite isolated we managed to keep the vines unaffected while using only minimal treatment. The beginning of August was dangerously similar to 2003 with very high day temperatures reaching almost 40ºC. This heat spike initially made us fear high levels of alcohol and sunburnt fruit. However, the high altitude of the vineyards and the big difference between day and night temperature preserved the grapes’ freshness while keeping alcohol levels in check. The beginning of September proved hot and dry, but the heat became less intense during the second half of the month and we started the harvest under near perfect conditions on September 24th with the first picking of the Merlot. We finished harvesting by the 8th of October when we brought in the Cabernet Sauvignon, finishing harvest only one week earlier than our norm. Although alcohol levels are slightly up due to higher than average sugar accumulution in the berries, it is paired with good acidity levels and lovely, fresh aromatics,’ (La Porta di Vertine 2007 vintage report from its website, 23 Dec 2013).

2009 ‘The 2009 and 2010 vintages are two of the greatest ever (with caveats) for Chianti Classico and central Tuscany. The two growing seasons differed markedly from each other. 2010 yielded wines of greater elegance and balance [than 2009]. That said, please note that 2009 wines from warmer parts of Chianti Classico (such as Castelnuovo Berardenga) can be tarry, heavy and disappointing,’ (Ian D’Agata, Vinous, Sept 2014).

2008 | Growing season ‘Mild and rainy May, June; hot and dry July, August; dry and mild September,’ (Nesto & Di Savino, 2016, p.190).

2008Wine quality 2008 was ‘good, but with a question mark over the stayability. A wet spring followed by a hot summer and then a cool wet August. The run in to the harvest had good conditions however and the fruit came in ripe and healthy. The lightly oaked annata wines were attractive, with very typical Sangiovese aroma, easy to drink immediately, albeit a little short. Stylistically a vintage made more for drinking than keeping. The riservas are a mixed bunch, with some rigid tannins [due to cool weather] which might not settle down. It is a slightly enigmatic vintage, but one to watch,’ says Kerin O’Keefe (in a Decanter article).

2007Growing season ‘A mild winter was followed by a cool, even Spring, leading to an early budbreak, and fears for a Spring frost proved unfounded. The weather remained pretty textbook, with occasional downpours at regular intervals. Temperatures climbed rapidly in July, with one week of scorching heat causing for some sunburnt fruit, which needed to be cut out, but this did not affect the overall volume. The remainder of the growing cycle was cooler and sunny until the beginning of September. Overall 2007 has resulted in complex wines, with fine tannins and density of fruit,’ (La Porta di Vertine 2007 vintage report from its website, 23 Dec 2013).

2006Growing season Some excellent wines. Similar to 2004 although bigger in body. It rained when rain was needed, and the summer was not excessively hot, so the resulting wines are fresh, lively with an excellent structure and body.

2006Growing season ‘The growing cycle in Spring started under drier conditions than the previous year, followed by a rather warm summer with average temperatures in the mid 30s° C. As the season progressed it started to show similarities to the very hot 2003, with sugar levels shooting up. However, the crucial difference was that night temperatures went down as much as 10° C, allowing the plants to rest and retaining good acidity levels. During September some rain fell, but not enough to harm the grapes. Although high sugar levels resulted in alcohol regularly approached 14% and more, there is good balance with ripe tannins and good acidity. It is certainly a vintage with great cellaring potential,’ (La Porta di Vertine 2007 vintage report from its website, 23 Dec 2013).

2005Growing season ‘A vintage [2005] that would go down in history as a challenging one, with an overall cool season and abundant rains in August, as well as regular precipitation in September and early October. This caused for delay in ripening, which could only be offset by intensive canopy management and green harvesting. The wet season caused for heightened mould pressure, which quality conscious producers tried to counteract opening the canopy, as well as severe fruit selection. In many cases this meant that volume went down with as much as 30%. September showed some hot weather. Still, many wines would show green unripe tannins with sometimes cooked fruit flavours, the result of prolonging bunch hang time in the vineyard in an effort to achieve more balance in the grapes. However, it is certainly not a vintage to write off, and some very good Riservas were produced, the result of a severe selection, whereas others chose to not produce a Riserva at all and using the fruit to upgrade their straight Chianti Classico,’ (La Porta di Vertine 2007 vintage report from its website, 23 Dec 2013).

2005Wine style Lighter than usual wines. An average vintage, sandwiched between two exceptional ones in 2004 and 2006.

2004Growing season ‘After the very hot 2003, 2004 seemed positively more regular. After a cool spring, which delayed budbreak and flowering, there were some substantial rains in May, which appeared to be a blessing from the sky as water reserves were replenished for what turned out to be a dry summer. September’s weather was one anyone would wish for with warm days and cooler nights with grapes maturing evenly while retaining acidity. A delayed harvest was envisaged and didn’t start before the end of September, in some instances even later, well into October. The resulting wines show fairly high levels of alcohol, but with enough substance and a ripe acidic core with lots of extract. The Consorzio of Chianti Classico initially gave it a four star rating out of five, but while the wines age this seems more and more a conservative assessment,’ (La Porta di Vertine 2007 vintage report from its website, 23 Dec 2013).

2003Growing season Good vintage, balanced wines.

2000Growing season ‘A tricky vintage’ (Gambero Rosso: 2003, p.571). ‘A not very extraordinary year,’ (Gambero Rosso: 2003, p.560).

1999: Growing season Drought conditions.

1998: Growing season Drought conditions. ‘A far from excellent year,’ (Gambero Rosso: 2003, p.553)

1997Growing season Hot summer.

1988Growing season See David Gleave (1989, p.103).

1987Growing season See David Gleave (1989, p.103).

1986Growing season See David Gleave (1989, p.103).

1985Growing season See David Gleave (1989, p.103).

1984Growing season See David Gleave (1989, p.103).

1983Growing season See David Gleave (1989, p.103).).

1982: Growing season See David Gleave (1989, p.103).

1981Growing season See David Gleave (1989, p.103).

1980Growing season See David Gleave Gleave (1989, p.103).

1978Growing season See David Gleave (Gleave (1989, p.103).

1978Growing season See David Gleave (1989, p.103).

1977Growing season See David Gleave (1989, p.103).

Bibliography

Bill Nesto MW & Frances Di Savino, Chianti Classico, the Search for Tuscany’s Noblest Wine, (University of California Press, 2016).

David Gleave, ‘The Wines of Italy‘ (Salamander Books, London, 1989).

Dr Ian D’Agata, Tuscany Part 1: Chianti, Vino Nobile and Supertuscans (Sep 2014) | Vinous.

Richard Baudains, ‘Sleepy? Never,’ Decanter Italy Supplement 2016, p.59.

Susan Hulme MW, ‘Chianti Classico 2013 & 2014: top tiers’ Decanter May 2018.

Walter Speller, ‘Chianti Classico 2013, and then some’, www.jancisrobinson.com 07 April 2015.

Walter Speller, ‘Chianti Classico Riserva’s struggle,’ www.jancisrobinson.com 07 April 2016.