Geology: The Carnuntum vineyards are situated between the Leitha mountain range and the Hainburg Mountains. They are underlain on the one hand by deposits of the Paratethys Sea and the Pannon Lake, and on the other hand in the areas of the Arbesthal Hills and Prellenkirchner Flur, by glacial terrace gravels of the former valley floors of the Danube.
The deposits of the Paratethys Sea and Lake Pannon consist of diverse carbonate-rich, unconsolidated, sandy-marly or silty-clayey, but rarely gravel sediments. The deposits of the Danube terraces are quartz-rich, sandy-gravels. They all bear an extensive cover of calcareous-dolomitic, silty loess or rather clayey, often decalcified loess loam (see loess, and loam).
The Leitha Limestone formed on the coastline of the Leitha mountain range about 16 million years ago as a marginal marine deposit within the Vienna Basin. Vineyards at Hof and Ungerberg are located upon the Leitha Limestone.
In the Hainburg Mountains the deepest and innermost portion is formed of granite, which was intruded into existing gneisses. The high altitude Berg vineyard is located on this substrate. Calcareous-dolomitic carbonate rocks of Mesozoic age were then deposited on those rocks. They form the rock walls above Hundsheim and the summit of Mount Spitzerberg.
Wines of Austria.
Hugh Johnson, Hugh Johnson’s Wine Companion (1991, 3rd edition, Mitchell Beazley), p.419.