The Battle of Montaperti took place on 04th September 1260 between the rival city states of Florence (Guelphs) and Siena (Ghibellines). Siena won in a bloody rout. Part of the battle may have been fought on land bordering the Arbia river (see Val d’Arbia DOC) and now owned by the Carpineta Fontalpino wine estate, in the township of Castelnuovo Berardenga. In his Divine Comedy (Inferno Canto X: Farinata prophesies Dante’s long exile), Dante Aligheri described the Battle of Montaperti as causing ‘great slaughter and havoc, that dyed the Arbia red.’