APPELLATION D’ORIGINE CONTRÔLEE or AOC refers to France’s AOC system. This was introduced in 1935 as a means of defining and trademarking the geographical origin of individual and historically recognised agricultural products such as ‘Camembert’ cheese or ‘Bordeaux’ wine. Rules were defined as to what these products could be made from–milk from a cow or a ewe or even both, juice from Cabernet Franc or Cabernet Sauvignon grapes or even both–and how they should be grown (maximum yields), harvested (Champagne grapes must be hand picked, Chablis grapes can be machine picked) and transformed into wine (fermentation in tank only, or also in bottle). The main aim was to prevent imitations. The weakness in the AOC system as far as wine is concerned is that the blind tasting aimed to weed out sub-standard wines is essentially policed by the wine producers themselves. The AOC system is administered in France by the INAO or Institut National des Appellation’s d’Origine (INAO). European Union (EU) reforms in 2008 allowed producers the option of labelling AOC wines as Appellation d’Origine Protegée or AOP which is the designation used by the EU for any ‘quality wine produced in a specific region’ or QWPSR (VQPRD or Vins de Quality Produits dans des Régions Determinées in France). The Appellation d’Origine Protegée (AOP) designation must appear (in small writing) on the capsule but there is no obligation for regions or individual producers to change bottle labels from AOC to AOP.