The remains of the Mediterranean’s old forest cover comprises three types according to Vedel (1978, p13-14), namely evergreen forest which is the most widespread, then a low scrub of trees and bushes called maquis which is the first stage in the forests’ degeneration after grazing and felling, then garigue [sic] with no trees and even lower shrubs, and finally steppe in which even the shrubs have disappeared. See Aleppo Pine, Austrian Pine, Box Elder, Broom, Buckthorn, Chestnut, ClematisCommon Fig, Cork OakCypressGrecian Fir, Holm Oak, Joint PineJuniper, Kermes Oak, Laurel, Lombardy Poplar, London PlaneManna Ash, Maritime Pine, Mastic, Mimosa, Montpellier Maple, Mulberry–Common or Black, Mulberry-White, OleanderOriental PlanePrickly Pear, Silver Wattle, Spanish Fir, Stone Pine, Strawberry Tree, Sun RosesSycomore Fig, Sweet BaySweet Chestnut, Tamarisks, Tree HeatherTurkey Oak, Umbrella Pine.


Trees and shrubs of the Mediterranean by Helge Vedel, translated from the Danish by Aubrey Rush (Penguin Guides, 1978), p13-14.