Kermes oak, or Holly Oak (Quercus coccifera), wild plant found in the Mediterranean. It has small, spiny leaves resembling those of holly, but acorns typical of an oak. It is often the dominant shrub in the maquis. On it can be found the galls of the scale insect from which the ancients made their scarlet dye.
Trees and shrubs of the Mediterranean by Helge Vedel, translated from the Danish by Aubrey Rush (Penguin Guides, 1978), p.36.