THE SCIENCE | ‘The scientific consensus on global warming has hardened, making blanket opposition harder to maintain,’ (‘Lexington–Salting the Earth’, The Economist 27th January 2018, p40).


‘Research in recent years suggests that, in a warmer world, grapes will cope better at higher latitudes and elevations. A study published last month [April 2015] in Nature Climate Change, a journal, found that grapes across France are now harvested two weeks earlier than they were 500 years ago. This trend could mean that wine gets worse, as it did after Europe’s heatwave in 2003. Grapes exposed to too much sun become sweeter and less acidic; eventually, they become raisins. Some spots, such as California’s Napa Valley, may get too hot for vines altogether. This will squeeze the juice out of an industry that generates more than $1 billion a year in taxes in America,’ (‘Desert wines’, The Economist 14th May 2016, p28).

SEE ALSO | Air travel & carbon emissions. / Bill McKibben. / Carbon pricing. / Chlorofluorocarbons. / Deforestation. / El Niño. / Greenhouse-gas emissions. Hurricanes. / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. / Kyoto Protocol 1997. / Methane. / Montreal Protocol 1987. / Ocean acidification. / Ozone layer. / Paris Accord 2015. / Rio Summit 1992. / Solar cycles